Here is a series of animated videos that give an excellent schematic overview of how to examine pupils, including many of the pathological conditions that pop up in the short cases. Patients with 2nd/3rd/4th/6th cranial nerve lesions are one of the most difficult scenarios you can face in the short case exam, and even those in tertiary hospitals with large neurology or stroke units will struggle to see real patients with these disorders prior to the exam. These videos give you a clear, simple overview of many of the conditions you may get in the exam, and will help you “spot diagnose” them should they crop up on exam day.
The first video goes through some terminology about eye movements:
This video goes through the actions of the extra-ocular muscles
How to examine normal pupils, and how to diagnose RAPD (Relative Afferent Pupillary Defect)
More detail on RAPD including causes
How to examine Horner’s Syndrome
3rd Nerve Palsy
Aniscoria (unequal pupils)
Visual Field Defects, including description of many of the causes from the retina back to the brain.
If you’d like the audio for these videos in text format (for your notes) you can find it here.